Geography Chapter 6: Manufacturing Industries

Facts that Matter

  1. Manufacturing means producing goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products. Manufacturing helps in transforming the raw materials into finished goods on a large scale and thus help earning profit as finished goods are costlier than raw materials. For instance, paper is manufactured from wood, sugar from sugarcane, iron and steel from iron ore, and aluminum from bauxite.
  2. Manufacturing sector is the backbone of economic development. The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries in it.
  3. Manufacturing industries help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy. It also helps people by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
  4. Industrial development helps in reducing unemployment and poverty from our country. It also reduces regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
  5. The location of industries are influenced by several factors such as availability of raw material, labour, capital, power and market, etc. It is difficult to find all these factors available at one place. Hence, manufacturing activity tends to locate at the most appropriate place where all the factors of industrial location are either available or can be arranged at lower cost.
  6. Industrialisation and urbanisation go hand in hand. Once industrial activities start, urbanisation also begins. Cities provide markets and services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry.

Classification of Industries

  1. On the basis of source of raw materials used—Agro-based industries and mineralbased industries.
  2. According to their main role—Basic or key industries and consumer industries.
  3. On the basis of capital investment—Small-scale industries and large-scale industries.
  4. On the basis of ownership—Public sector industries, private sector industries, joint sector industries and cooperative sector industries.
  5. Based on the bulk and weight of raw material and finished goods—heavy industries and light industries.

Agro-based Industries

  1. Textile Industry occupies unique position in the Indian economy.
  2. Earlier cotton textiles were produced with hand spinning and handloom weaving techniques. After the 18th century, powerlooms came into existence. In the 19th century textile mills were established. The first successful textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854.
  3. Cotton textile industries in India are largely concentrated in and around Mumbai, Maharashtra and Gujarat.
  4. While spinning continues to be centralised in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu, weaving is highly decentralised to provide scope for incorporating traditional skills and designs of weaving in cotton, silk, zari, embroidery, etc.
  5. India has world class production in spinning, but weaving supplies low quality of fabric as it cannot use much of the high quality yarn produced in the country.
  6. Today, there are nearly 1600 cotton and human made fibre textile mills in the country. About 80 per cent of these are in the private sector and the rest in the public and cooperative sectors.
  7. Cotton textile industry is facing several problems today due to irregular supply of electricity, old and outdated machinery, low output of labours and stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry.
  8. The first Jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra. Today India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. After partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India but three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh (previous East Pakistan). The jute industry supports 2.61 lakh workers directly and another 40 lakhs small and marginal farmers indirectly.
  9. Jute industry faces tough competition due to presence of synthetic substitutes in the international market and also from other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Philippines, Egypt and Thailand.
  10. India is the second largest producer of sugar in the world and the first largest producer of gur and khandsari. There are over 460 sugar mills in the country spread over Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat along with Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.
  11. So far, north India is regarded as the main centre of sugar industry and half of the sugar mills of India are in Uttar Pradesh only. But in recent years, the mills have shifted to the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra.
  12. Mineral-based Industries
  13. The iron and steel Industry is the base of all industries as it provides all types of machinery to run other industries.
  14. Steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and a variety of consumer goods. Production and consumption of steel is considered as the index of a country’s development.
  15. Iron and steel is a heavy industry because all the raw materials as well as finished goods are heavy and bulky requiring heavy transportation costs. Three integrated steel plants were set up at Bhilai, Durgapur and Rourkela. Later two more steel plants, at Bokaro and Vishakhapatnam, were set up. Presently, there are 10 primary integrated and many mini steel plants in India.
  16. An integrated steel plant is large, handles everything in one complex—from putting together raw material to steel making, rolling and shaping.
  17. All public sector undertakings market their steel through Steel Authority of India Ltd. (SAIL) while TISCO markets its produce through Tata Steel. China is the largest producer of steel. It is also the world’s largest consumer of steel. In 2004, India was the largest exporter of steel. Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries.
  18. Aluminium Smelting. Aluminium smelting is the second most important metallurgical industry in India. It is light, rust resistant, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals. Bauxite is the raw material used in the smelters in a very bulky, dark reddish coloured rock. It is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires. It acts as a substitute of steel, copper, zinc and lead in a number of industries. There are 8 aluminum smelting plants in the country located in Orissa (Nalco and Balco), West Bengal, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh.
  19. Nitrogenous Fertiliser Industry. India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers. There are 57 fertiliser units manufacturing nitrogenous and complex nitrogenous fertilisers. Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, U.P., Punjab and Kerala are the main states.
  20. Other significant producers are Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka.
  21. Cement Industry. Cement is used for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams and for other commercial establishments. This industry requires bulky and heavy raw materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum. Coal and electric power are needed apart from rail transportation. The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904. After independence the industry expanded.
  22. Chemical Industries. The chemical industry in India is growing fast and contributes approximately 3 per cent of the GDP. It is the third largest industry in Asia and occupies the twelfth place in the world in term of its size. It comprises both large and small scale manufacturing units. Both inorganic and organic sectors have grown rapidly. Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilisers, synthetic fibres, plastics, adhesives, paints, dye-stuffs), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps and detergents, paper) and caustic soda. Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dye-stuffs, drugs and pharmaceuticals.
  23. Automobile Industry—Automobiles provide vehicles for quick transport of good services and passengers. This industry had developed rapidly in last 15 years. Today there are 15 manufacturers of passenger cars and multi-utility vehicles, 9 of commercial vehicles, 14 of the two and three-wheelers. The industry is located around Delhi, Gurgaon, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur and Bangalore.
  24. Information Technology and Electronics Industry. The electronics industry includes a large range of products like transistor, television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, computers etc. Bangalore is considered as the electronic capital of India. Other important centres for electronic goods are Mumbai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow and Coimbatore. The IT industry has employed a large number of population thus reducing the problem of unemployment.
  25. Undoubtedly, the rapid growth in industries has led to considerable economic growth but it has also led to the increase in pollution of land, water, air, noise eventually resulting in degradation of environment. Rapid industrialisation for rapid economic development has raised various serious problems.
  26. Hence, we should adopt ways to control environmental degradation. Water should be reused and recycled to minimise the use of water. It would be better if the factories make an arrangement for using their waste-water over and over again after scientifically treating it. Hot water and effluents should be treated before releasing them in rivers and ponds. Rainwater should be used to meet water requirements and harvesting of rain water should also be done.

             Earplugs and earphones can be used to save oneself from the side effects of noise pollution. Generators should be fitted with silencers.

             Oil or gas should be used in factories in place of coal in order to reduce smoke.

    27.  NTPC is a major power providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification for EMS (Environment Management System) 14001.


Fig 1. Classification of Industries

Words that Matter

  1. Manufacturing: Producing goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products.
  2. Agro-based industries: Industries that depend on agricultural products such as cotton, woollen, jute, silk textile, rubber, sugar, tea, coffee, edible oil.
  3. Mineral-based industries: Industries that use minerals and metals as raw materials such as iron and steel, cement, aluminium, machine tools, petrochemicals.
  4. Smelting: A process by which the mineral is melted to remove impurities.
  5. Light industries: Industries that use light raw materials and produce light goods such as electrical industries.
  6. Basic or key industries: Industries that supply their products or raw materials to other industries to manufacture goods. e.g. iron and steel and copper smelting, aluminium smelting.
  7. Consumer industries: produce goods for direct use by consumers—sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans etc.
  8. Small scale industries: Industries in which the maximum investment allowed is rupees one crore.
  9. Large scale industries: Industries that make investment above one crore rupees.
  10. Public sector industries: Owned and operated by government agencies—BHEL, SAIL etc.
  11. Private sector industries: Owned and operated by individuals or a group of individuals TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd., Dabur Industries.
  12. Joint sector industries: Jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals. Oil India Ltd. (OIL) is jointly owned by public and private sectors.
  13. Cooperative sector industries: Owned and operated by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both. They pool in the resources and share the profits or losses proportionately such as the sugar industry in Maharashtra, the coir industry in Kerala.


1. On the basis of ownership industries are categorised as ......... .

(a) Large-scale and Small-scale industries                                       

(b) Public sector, Private sector, Joint and Cooperative sectors

(c) Basic/key and Consumer industries

(d) Agro-based and Mineral-based industries

2. Which one is not an integrated steel plant?

(a) Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) in West Bengal         (b) Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) in Chhattisgarh

(c) Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Orissa                    (d) Tata Iron and Steel Corporation Ltd (TISCO)

3. When was the first jute mill set up near Kolkata at Rishra?

(a) 1859                                                                       (b) 1899

(c) 1870                                                                       (d) 1856

4. The raw materials like iron ore, cooking coal, limestone, dolomite, manganese and fire clay are needed in which industry?

(a) Petrochemical industry                                          (b) Sugar industry

(c) Iron and steel industry                                           (d) Chemical industry

5. The Rourkela Steel plant was set up in collaboration with which country?

(a) Russia                                                                    (b) Germany

(c) United Kingdom                                                   (d) China

6. Which state is a leading sugar producer in the country?

(a) Gujarat                                                                   (b) Punjab

(c) Haryana                                                                 (d) Uttar Pradesh

7. When was the new Industrial Policy of India announced?

(a) 1992                                                                       (b) 1991

(c) 1993                                                                       (d) 1990

8. Which of the following is a basic or key industry?

(a) Iron and steel industry                                           (b) Automobile industry

(c) Cement industry                                                    (d) Fertiliser industry

9. Where was the first cotton textile mill established?

(a) Ahmedabad                                                           (b) Surat

(c) Bokaro                                                                   (d) Mumbai

10. The largest producer of raw jute and jute goods is ......... .

(a) Bangladesh                                                            (b) Pakistan

(c) India                                                                      (d) Myanmar

11. Which one of the following does not come under the category of consumer industry?

(a) Sugar                                                                      (b) Paper

(c) Fans                                                                       (d) Jute

12. Which one of the following is a private sector industry?

(a) BHEL                                                                    (b) SAIL

(c) TISCO                                                                  (d) OIL

13. Which one of the following is a joint sector industry?

(a) TISCO                                                                   (b) OIL

(c) BHEL                                                                    (d) Bajaj Auto Ltd.

14. Where was the first jute mill set up?

(a) Mumbai                                                                  (b) Surat

(c) Kanpur                                                                   (d) Kolkata

15. The largest producer of steel is ......... .

(a) India                                                                      (b) France

(c) Japan                                                                      (d) China

16. Nalco and Balco are associated with which of the following?

(a) Aluminium industry                                               (b) Cement industry

(c) Fertiliser industry                                                   (d) None of the above

17. The first cement plant was in ......... .

(a) Chennai                                                                  (b) Madurai

(c) Ahmedabad                                                           (d) Mumbai

18. ......... has emerged as the electronic capital of India.

(a) Delhi                                                                      (b) Mumbai

(c) Hyderabad                                                                         (d) Bangalore

Ans. 1—(b) 2—(d) 3—(a) 4—(c) 5—(b) 6—(d) 7—(b) 8—(a) 9—(d) 10—(c) 11—(d) 12—(c) 13—(b) 14—(d) 15—(d) 16—(a) 17—(a) 18—(d)


  1. In which sector do manufacturing industries fall?
  2. How have the agro-industries in India given a major boost to agriculture?
  3. Which sector is considered to be the backbone of development?
  4. How will our country be able to compete in the international market?
  5. Why is iron and steel industry known as a heavy industry?
  6. On what basis is the industrial sector classified into public and private sectors?
  7. What is the objective of the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC)?
  8. Which is the key factor in the location of an industry?
  9. What do you mean by agglomeration economics?
  10. Mention some of the manufactured products that you use in your daily life.
  11. What do you mean by an agro-based industry? Give two examples.
  12. Give some examples of minerals-based industries.
  13. What are called basic or key industries? Give examples.
  14. Define small scale industry.
  15. Define large scale industry.
  16. What is meant by public sector industry? Give examples.
  17. What are called private sector industries? Give examples.
  18. What are called joint sector industries? Give examples.
  19. What are called cooperative sector industries? Give examples.
  20. Explain light industry with examples.
  21. Which is the only industry in India having self-reliant positions?
  22. How was cotton textiles produced in ancient India?
  23. What happened to our traditional industries during the colonial period?
  24. How many cotton and human made fibre textile mills are there in India?
  25. Name three states where spinning of yarn continues to be centralised.
  26. What is the position of India in the production of sugar in world?
  27. Which value is associated with the hand-spun Khadi?
  28. How many jute mills are there in India? Where are most of them located?
  29. Mention one challenge faced by the jute industry.
  30. How many sugar mills are there in India? Where are they located?
  31. Name the industry which is seasonal in nature.
  32. Define mineral based industries.
  33. What is steel used for?
  34. What is regarded as the index of a country’s development?
  35. Which region in India has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries?
  36. Name all the seven states of India where aluminium smelting plants are located.
  37. Where are organic chemical plants located?
  38. When and where was the first cement plant set up in India?
  39. What is the key to the success of IT Industry in India?
  40. What is NTPC?


1.      Explain with examples, how do industries give boost to the agriculture sector? (CBSE 2015)


“Agriculture and industry move hand in hand”. Analyse the statement with three examples. (AI CBSE 2013)

2.      India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet, We are not able to perform to our full potential. Give any four reasons. (CBSE 2013, AI CBSE 2013)

3.      What are the factors responsible for the location of jute industry in the Hugli basin? (HOTS)

4.      Why have sugar mills shifted to the southern and western states, especially in Maharashtra in recent years?

5.      Chhotanagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries. Give reasons for it. (HOTS).

6.      Why does the textile industry occupy a unique position in the Indian economy?     [V. Imp.]

7.      State the major challenges of jute industry that are leading to its decline in India.

8.      Explain any three factors that affect the location of industries in a region.

9.      (i) What is an agro-based industry?

(ii) Name the most important agro-based industries of India.    [CBSE 2008, 2009(F)]

10.  Why was cotton textile industry concentrated in the cotton growing belt of Maharashtra and Gujarat in the early years? Explain any three reasons.  (AI CBSE 2012)

11.  Why is iron and steel industry called the basic industry? Explain any three reasons. (CBSE 2012)

12.  Classify industries on the basis of the source of raw materials. Give example. (HOTS)

13.  Classify industries according to their main role.

14.  (i) Mention the two industries that are supported by the cotton textile industry.


(ii) What are the major problems faced by the cotton textile industries in India?      (HOTS)

15.  What were the major objections of the National Jute Policy 2005? Why has been the internal demand for jute on the increase?  (CBSE 2011, AI CBSE 2013)

16.  What are the major challenges of the sugar industry in India?

17.  Explain any three reasons for the expansion of sugar Industry in the southern states of India.


18.  Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states of India? Give three reasons. (CBSE 2011)

19.  Enumerate the factors that led to the expansion of cement industry after the Independence.

20.  “Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases.” Mention them.

21.  Explain any three physical factors for the location of an industry in a particular area. [CBSE 2005, 2009(F), 2011]

22.  Describe any three main features of chemical industry.   (CBSE 2011)

23.  Give a flow chart which shows the process of manufacturing aluminium. (HOTS)

24.  Why is the cotton textile industry the largest industry in India today? Give any three reasons. (CBSE 2011)                                                                                                                                   

25.  How do industries pollute air? Explain ill effects of pollution. (AI CBSE 2012)


1.      What is manufacturing? What is its importance?

2.      How do industries pollute air and water? Explain with examples.   (AI CBSE 2009)

3.      Write about information technology and electronics industry.


What role does the IT sector play in the Indian economy?  (HOTS)

4.      “Agriculture and industry are not exclusive of each other. They move hand in hand.” Explain.    (AI CBSE 2010, 2011)


Explain with examples, how industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture. (AI CBSE 2012)


How are agriculture and industries interdependent on each other? Explain. (CBSE 2012, 2013)

5.      “The cotton textile industry has the largest concentration in and around Mumbai (Maharashtra) and Ahmedabad (Gujarat)”. Give reasons.  [CBSE 2008(C)]

6.      The jute-textile industry is mainly concentrated in the Hugh basin. Mention four factors for the same.   [CBSE 2008(F), 2011, 2012]

7.      Why is the iron and steel industry called a basic and heavy industry? [CBSE 2001, 2009(F), 2011, AI CBSE 2012]

8.      State the challenges faced by the jute industry.(CBSE 2006, 2011)

9.      Give reasons why the iron and steel industry in India is concentrated around the Chota Nagpur plateau region.   [CBSE 2004(C), 2008]


Why does the Chota Nagpur plateau region has the maximum concentration of iron and steel industry? Give reasons.  (AI CBSE 2012)

10.  Distinguish between the large-scale and small-scale industries. (CBSE 2010).

11.  How much is the contribution of manufacturing sector to the national income of the country?


1.      How can the industrial pollution of fresh water be reduced? Suggest some ways. [CBSE 2010(F), 2011]

2.      Suggest some ways to control air and noise pollution caused by industry.


1.      Describe the importance of industries in the economic development of a country.

2.      Classify industries on the basis of capital investment.

3.      Write a note on industrial pollution.

4.      How are agriculture and industries dependent on each other?