Part 1 Mineral Resoures
Facts that Matter
Words that Matter
Part 2 Energy Resources
Facts that Matter
1. Energy is required for all activities such as cooking, propelling vehicles, driving machinery in industries, etc. Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and electricity. Energy resources can be classified as conventional (firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, etc.) and non-conventional sources (solar, wind, biogas, etc.).
2. Coal is an important fossil fuel of India. It provides about 80% of the nation’s energy needs. India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements. Coal is found abundantly in the eastern side of the country.
3. In India, coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages—Gondwana and tertiary. While Gondwana coal is about 200 million years old, tertiary deposits are approximately 55 million years old. The major resources of Gondwana (metallurgical) coal are located in the Damodar valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Sone and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits. Tertiary coals occur in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
4. Natural gas is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry. It is considered an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions. Natural gas is found in Mumbai High and the Gulf of Cambay. Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna- Godavari basin.
5. Petroleum provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries. Petroleum refineries act as a “nodal industry” for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries. About 63 per cent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent comes from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam.
6. Electricity is generated mainly in two ways by hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity and by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to produce thermal power. Hydro electricity is a renewable resource.
7. Non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, wind, etc. are renewable and therefore there is a pressing need to use these sources.
8. Nuclear or Atomic energy is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. Uranium and thorium, which are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan are used for generating atomic or nuclear power. The Monazite sand of Kerala is also rich in thorium.
9. Being a tropical country, India has an abundance of sunlight. Hence, there are huge possibilities of tapping solar energy. Use of solar energy will be able to minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes, which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur, near Bhuj (Gujarat).
10. Wind power is abundant in India. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Other states with wind farms are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, etc. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer make effective use of wind energy.
11. Biogas is produced from shrubs, farm waste, animal and human wastes. It is mostly used for domestic consumption in rural areas. Biogas plants using cattle dung are known as ‘Gobar gas plants’ in rural India.
12. These provide twin benefits to the farmer in the form of energy and improved quality of manure. Biogas is by far the most efficient use of cattle dung. It prevents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of fuel wood and cow dung cakes.
13. Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity which is known as tidal energy.
14. Floodgate dams are built across inlets. During high tide water flows in to the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. After the tide falls outside the flood gate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea via a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine. In India, the Gulf of Kuchchh provides ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy.
15. Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth. Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh.
16. Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every sector of national economy— agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic—needs inputs of energy. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development. India is presently one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. We have to adopt a cautious approach for judicious use of our limited energy resources.
Words that Matter
1. Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content.
2. Bituminous: Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures is bituminous coal.
3. Anthracite: It is the highest quality of hard coal.
4. Hydro-electricity: It is generated by fast flowing water.
5. Thermal electricity: It is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas.
6. Tidal energy: It refers to the electricity which is generated by oceanic tides.
7. Geo-thermal energy: It refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth.
8. Biogas: It is produced by using shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste.
Part 1 Mineral Resoures Exercise
I. Objective Questions
Choose the correct answer:
1. Where are minerals usually found? (CBSE 2011)
(a) Rocks (b) Earth crust
(c) Ores (d) Earth core
2. When mining is done by family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel it is known as ......
(a) Narrow tunnel mining (b) Rat hole mining
(c) Snake mining (d) Killer mining
3. Minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks in ......... .
(a) the veins and the lodes (b) layers
(c) alluvial deposits (d) the decomposed surface rocks
4. Ferrous minerals account for about ......... of the total value of the production of metallic minerals.
(a) one-fourth (b) three-fourths
(c) one-fifth (d) one-third
5. Which is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development?
(a) Coal (b) Bauxite
(c) Copper (d) Iron ore
6. Which metal has a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent?
(a) Magnetite ore (b) Hematite iron
(c) Hematite ore (d) Iron ore
7. Which is the largest producer of manganese ores in India?
(a) Kudremukh (b) Bailadila
(c) Odisha (d) Jharkhand
8. ......... is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.
(a) Gypsum (b) Limestone
(c) Potash salt (d) Sodium salt
9. Which one of the following is the hardest mineral?
(a) Gold (b) Diamond
(c) Ruby (d) Silver
10. Which one of the following is the softest mineral?
(a) Talc (b) Toothpaste
(c) Salt (d) Cement
11. Which one is not a ferrous mineral?
(a) Iron ore (b) Manganese
(c) Copper (d) Hematite
12. Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt is located in ......... .
(a) Madhya Pradesh (b) Karnataka
(c) Andhra Pradesh (d) Tamil Nadu
13. Which one of the following is not a property of copper?
(a) It is malleable. (b) It is ductile.
(c) It is good conductor. (d) It is hard.
14 The largest bauxite-producing state in India is ......... .
(a) Orissa (b) Madhya Pradesh
(c) Maharashtra (d) Jharkhand
15. The mineral ore from which aluminium is mainly obtained ......... .
(a) copper (b) bauxite
(c) iron ore (d) none of the above
16. The Khetri mines in Rajasthan are famous for which of the following minerals?
(a) Bauxite (b) Aluminium
(c) Mica (d) Copper
17. Name the finest iron ore.
(a) Hematite (b) Magnetite
(c) Manazite (d) Lignite
18. In which state does Nellore mica belt lie?
(a) Tamil Nadu (b) Andhra Pradesh
(c) Rajasthan (d) Karnataka
19. Which of the following minerals are obtained from veins and lodes? (CBSE 2011)
(i) Zinc (ii) Copper (iii) Coal (iv) Bauxite
(a) Only (i) and (ii) (b) Only (ii) and (iii)
(c) Only (iii) and (iv) (d) All of the above
20. Which of the following is a famous metal?
(a) Manganese (b) Bauxite
(c) Gold (d) Mica
Ans. 1—(c) 2—(b) 3—(a) 4—(b) 5—(d) 6—(a) 7—(c) 8—(b) 9—(b) 10—(a) 11—(c) 12—(b) 13—(d) 14—(a) 15—(b) 16—(d) 17—(b) 18—(b) 19—(a) 20—(a)
II. VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
III. SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What are non-metallic minerals? Write a short note on uses of mica and its distribution in India.
2. Describe any two facts regarding the importance of manganese in our daily life. Also name the four states which are known for its production.
3. State two main uses of copper. Also, mention three major copper-producing districts of India.
4. How is the mining activity injurious to the health of the miners and environment? Explain. (CBSE 2015)
How does mining adversely affect the health and the environment?
5. State uses of limestone. Also mention the states where it is produced.
6. The pie chart given below shows the production of manganese in different states. On the basis of reading of diagram answer the following questions:
7. Mention any three major iron-ore belts of India. Write any three characteristics of the southernmost iron-ore belt.
8. Differentiate between metallic and non-metallic minerals with examples.
9. Explain any three values attached with the use of minerals in a sustainable manner. [AI CBSE 2013(C)]
10. What the different varieties are of iron one? How will you differentiate between them? Give any two points.
11. How do minerals occur in sedimentary rocks? (CBSE 2011)
12. (i) How are deposits of bauxite formed and aluminium obtained?
(ii) What is the utility of aluminium?
(iii) Describe the distribution of aluminium.
13. How are minerals an indispensable part of our lives? Explain with three examples.
14. State any two factors affecting the economic viability of mineral reserves. [CBSE 2008(F)]
15. (i) How are bauxite formed?
(ii) Where are India’s bauxite deposits found?
(iii) Which are the most important bauxite deposits located in Orissa?
16. How do minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks? (CBSE 2011)
17. Explain Rat-Hole mining in the tribal areas. (HOTS)
18. Mention three properties of mica.(HOTS)
III. LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Why is conservation of mineral resources essential? Explain any three methods to conserve them. (CBSE 2015).
2. What are the two main qualities of iron ore deposits of India? Explain the two types of iron ore mainly found in the country. Which are the major states known for the production of iron ore?
3. In which various forms do minerals occur? (HOTS)
4. Give an account of the distribution of minerals in India.
‘Minerals in India are unevenly distributed’. Explain. (CBSE 2011)
5. Why is Chhotanagpur plateau called a ‘store house of minerals’?
6. Give an account of the major iron ore belts in India.
IV. MAP SKILLS
1. On the given political outline map of India, two features A and B are marked. Identify these features with the help of the following information:
A. Iron-ore mines
B. Terminal station of North-South Corridor
On the same map locate and lable the following:
(i) Gandhinagar Software Technology Park. (CBSE 2015)
2. Identify the following places marked in the given outline political map of India with the help of references:
V. TEST YOUR SKILLS
Part 2 Energy Resoures Exercise
1. MORE QUESTIONS SOLVED
Choose the correct answer:
1. Which one is not a conventional source of energy?
(a) Coal (b) Biogas
(c) Firewood (d) Petroleum
2. Decaying plants in swamps produce what ......... .
(a) Peat (b) Lignite
(c) Bituminous (d) Coal
3. The principal lignite reserves are used for ......... .
(a) Generation of wind power (b) Generation of electricity
(c) Generation of thermal power (d) None of the above
4. The major resources of Gondwana coal are located in ......... .
(a) Wardha valley (b) Godavari valley
(c) Sone valley (d) Damodar valley
5. Heavy industries and thermal power stations are located on or near the coalfields because ......... .
(a) coal is a bulky material (b) coal loses weight on use
(c) coal transportation is very costly (d) all of the above
6. The oldest oil-producing state in India is ......... .
(a) Assam (b) Gujarat
(c) Maharashtra (d) Tamil Nadu
7. The full form of CNG is ......... .
(a) Compound Natural Gas (b) Complex Natural Gas
(c) Compound New Gas (d) Compressed Natural Gas
8. There are over ......... thermal power plants in India.
(a) 210 (b) 310
(c) 410 (d) 510
9. The largest solar plant of India is located at ......... .
(a) Madhapur (b) Nagarcoil
(c) Jaisalmer (d) Madurai
10. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of ......... in the country.
(a) solar energy (b) wind energy
(c) tidal energy (d) atomic energy
11. The most important oil field in Gujarat is ......... .
(a) Ankaleshwar (b) Vadodara
(c) Kalol (d) Hajira
12. Neyveli has reserves of ......... .
(a) Anthracite (b) Poat
(c) Lignite (d) Bituminous
13. Which one of the following non-conventional sources of energy is harnessed in the Parvati Valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh?
(a) Solar energy (b) Tidal energy
(c) Geothermal energy (d) Wind energy
14. Which one of the following fuels is considered environment-friendly?
(a) Coal (b) Petroleum
(c) Natural gas (d) Firewood
15. About sixty per cent of India’s petroleum production comes from the region of ..........