Geography Chapter 5: Minerals and Energy Resources

Part 1 Mineral Resoures

Facts that Matter

  1. The earth’s crust is made up of different minerals found in the rocks and they are extracted by proper refinement. Minerals are an essential part of our lives. The hardest mineral is diamond and the softest is talc. Minerals can be defined as a homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.
  2. Minerals are usually found in “ores”. Ore means an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements. Minerals are classified on the basis of a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density that a particular mineral possesses.
  3. Rocks are combinations of homogenous substances called minerals. Some rocks, for instance, limestone, consist of a single mineral only, but majority of the rocks consist of several minerals in varying proportions.
  4. Classification of minerals—metallic, non-metallic and energy minerals. Metallic minerals are of three types—Ferrous (containing iron), Non-ferrous (copper, lead, etc.) and precious (gold, silver, etc.). Examples of non-minerals are—mica, salt, potash, etc. Energy minerals are coal, petroleum and natural gas.
  5. Minerals occur in the veins and the lodes in igneous and metamorphic rocks. For instance, tin, copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained from these veins and lodes. They also occur in layers in sedimentary rocks. Coal and some forms of iron ore are found in it. Minerals such as gypsum, potash, salt and sodium salt are formed with the help of evaporation especially in dry regions. Bauxite is found in the decomposed surface rocks.
  6. Minerals which do not erode by water are found in Alluvial deposits. For example, gold, silver, tin and platinum.
  7. The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals. Common salt, magnesium and bromine are largely derived from ocean waters. The ocean belts, too, are rich in manganese nodules.
  8. India is fortunate to have fairly rich and varied mineral resources. Peninsular rocks contains most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals. In the sedimentary rocks of Gujarat and Assam most of the petroleum deposits are found. Rajasthan with the rock systems of the peninsula, has reserves of many non-ferrous minerals.
  9. Ferrous minerals account for about three-fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. Iron ore, manganese, nichel and cobalt are important ferrous minerals.
  10. Iron ore is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development. Iron ores are of two types—Magnetite and Hematite. Magnetite is the finest iron ore with a high content of iron upto 70%. Hematite ore has a slightly lower iron content than magnetite (50–60%). Iron ore is found in states like Karnataka, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Goa and Jharkhand.
  11. The four major iron ore belts are—Odisha-Jharkhand belt, Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt, Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt and Maharashtra-Goa belt.
  12. Manganese is mainly used in the manufacturing of steel and ferro-manganese alloy. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture one tonne of steel. It is also used in manufacturing bleaching powder, insecticides and paints.
  13. India’s reserves and production of non-ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory.
  14. Being malleable, ductile and a good conductor, copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries. India is critically deficient in the reserve and production of copper. Copper producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan.
  15. Bauxite deposits are formed by decomposition of rocks rich in aluminium silicates. It is a clay-like substance from which aluminium is obtained. Aluminium is an important metal because it combines the strength of metals such as iron, with extreme lightness and also with good conductivity and great malleability. It is used in electrical industries, aircraft manufacturing industries, utensil making, etc. Orissa is the largest bauxite producing state in India.
  16. Non-Metallic Minerals do not contain metals or do not have metallic properties. For example, mica, limestone, salt, potash, sulphur, granite, marble, sandstone, etc.
  17. Mica can be clear, black, green, red, yellow or brown. Due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties and resistance to high voltage, it is one of the most essential minerals used in electric and electronic industries. Koderma-Gaya—Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand is the leading producer of Mica. In Rajasthan, the major mica producing area is around Ajmer. Nellore mica belt of Andhra Pradesh is also an important producer in the country.
  18. Limestone (rock mineral) is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace. It is found in sedimentary rocks of most geological formations. Major limestone-producing states are Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
  19. Minerals are important for every country for its development. Industry and agriculture depend upon minerals and the substances manufactured from them. They are already in short supply. (Just one per cent of the earth’s crust).
  20. We are rapidly consuming mineral resources that require millions of years to be created and concentrated. Mineral resources are finite and non-renewable and therefore they must be conserved. Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes are steps towards mineral conservation.

Words that Matter

  1. Mineral: A homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.
  2. Ore: An accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements.
  3. Rocks: Combinations of homogenous substances called minerals.
  4. Mineral Ore: Metals in their raw state as extracted from the earth.
  5. Non-metallic minerals: Minerals that do not contain metals or do not have metallic properties.
  6. Rat hole mining: Coal mining done by family members in the form of long narrow tunnel is known as rat hole mining.

Part  2 Energy Resources

Facts that Matter

1.      Energy is required for all activities such as cooking, propelling vehicles, driving machinery in industries, etc. Energy can be generated from fuel minerals like coal, petroleum, natural gas, uranium and electricity. Energy resources can be classified as conventional (firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, etc.) and non-conventional sources (solar, wind, biogas, etc.).

2.      Coal is an important fossil fuel of India. It provides about 80% of the nation’s energy needs. India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements. Coal is found abundantly in the eastern side of the country.

3.      In India, coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages—Gondwana and tertiary. While Gondwana coal is about 200 million years old, tertiary deposits are approximately 55 million years old. The major resources of Gondwana (metallurgical) coal are located in the Damodar valley (West Bengal, Jharkhand), Jharia, Raniganj and Bokaro. The Godavari, Mahanadi, Sone and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits. Tertiary coals occur in the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

4.      Natural gas is used as a source of energy as well as an industrial raw material in the petrochemical industry. It is considered an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions. Natural gas is found in Mumbai High and the Gulf of Cambay. Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna- Godavari basin.

5.      Petroleum provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries. Petroleum refineries act as a “nodal industry” for synthetic textile, fertiliser and numerous chemical industries. About 63 per cent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 per cent comes from Gujarat and 16 per cent from Assam.

6.      Electricity is generated mainly in two ways by hydro turbines to generate hydro electricity and by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas to produce thermal power. Hydro electricity is a renewable resource.

7.      Non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, wind, etc. are renewable and therefore there is a pressing need to use these sources.

8.      Nuclear or Atomic energy is obtained by altering the structure of atoms. Uranium and thorium, which are available in Jharkhand and the Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan are used for generating atomic or nuclear power. The Monazite sand of Kerala is also rich in thorium.

9.      Being a tropical country, India has an abundance of sunlight. Hence, there are huge possibilities of tapping solar energy. Use of solar energy will be able to minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes, which in turn will contribute to environmental conservation and adequate supply of manure in agriculture. Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity. The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur, near Bhuj (Gujarat).

10.  Wind power is abundant in India. The largest wind farm cluster is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Other states with wind farms are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, etc. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer make effective use of wind energy.

11.  Biogas is produced from shrubs, farm waste, animal and human wastes. It is mostly used for domestic consumption in rural areas. Biogas plants using cattle dung are known as ‘Gobar gas plants’ in rural India.

12.  These provide twin benefits to the farmer in the form of energy and improved quality of manure. Biogas is by far the most efficient use of cattle dung. It prevents the loss of trees and manure due to burning of fuel wood and cow dung cakes.

13.  Oceanic tides can be used to generate electricity which is known as tidal energy.

14.  Floodgate dams are built across inlets. During high tide water flows in to the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. After the tide falls outside the flood gate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea via a pipe that carries it through a power-generating turbine. In India, the Gulf of Kuchchh provides ideal conditions for utilising tidal energy.

15.  Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth. Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley, Ladakh.

16.  Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every sector of national economy— agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic—needs inputs of energy. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development. India is presently one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. We have to adopt a cautious approach for judicious use of our limited energy resources.

Words that Matter

1.      Lignite: It is a low grade brown coal, which is soft with high moisture content.

2.      Bituminous: Coal that has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures is bituminous coal.

3.      Anthracite: It is the highest quality of hard coal.

4.      Hydro-electricity: It is generated by fast flowing water.

5.      Thermal electricity: It is generated by using coal, petroleum and natural gas.

6.      Tidal energy: It refers to the electricity which is generated by oceanic tides.

7.      Geo-thermal energy: It refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the Earth.

8.      Biogas: It is produced by using shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste.

Part 1 Mineral Resoures Exercise

I.          Objective Questions

Choose the correct answer:

1. Where are minerals usually found?   (CBSE 2011)

(a) Rocks                                                                                       (b) Earth crust

(c) Ores                                                                                         (d) Earth core

2. When mining is done by family members in the form of a long narrow tunnel it is known as ......

(a) Narrow tunnel mining                                                              (b) Rat hole mining

(c) Snake mining                                                                           (d) Killer mining

3. Minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks in ......... .

(a) the veins and the lodes                                                            (b) layers

(c) alluvial deposits                                                                       (d) the decomposed surface rocks

4. Ferrous minerals account for about ......... of the total value of the production of metallic minerals.

(a) one-fourth                                                                                (b) three-fourths

(c) one-fifth                                                                                   (d) one-third

5. Which is the basic mineral and the backbone of industrial development?

(a) Coal                                                                                         (b) Bauxite

(c) Copper                                                                                     (d) Iron ore

6. Which metal has a very high content of iron up to 70 per cent?

(a) Magnetite ore                                                                           (b) Hematite iron

(c) Hematite ore                                                                            (d) Iron ore

7. Which is the largest producer of manganese ores in India?

(a) Kudremukh                                                                              (b) Bailadila

(c) Odisha                                                                                                 (d) Jharkhand

8. ......... is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.

(a) Gypsum                                                                                   (b) Limestone

(c) Potash salt                                                                                (d) Sodium salt

9. Which one of the following is the hardest mineral?

(a) Gold                                                                                         (b) Diamond

(c) Ruby                                                                                        (d) Silver

10. Which one of the following is the softest mineral?

(a) Talc                                                                                          (b) Toothpaste

(c) Salt                                                                                           (d) Cement

11. Which one is not a ferrous mineral?

(a) Iron ore                                                                                    (b) Manganese

(c) Copper                                                                                     (d) Hematite

12. Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur-Tumkur belt is located in ......... .

(a) Madhya Pradesh                                                                      (b) Karnataka

(c) Andhra Pradesh                                                                       (d) Tamil Nadu

13. Which one of the following is not a property of copper?

(a) It is malleable.                                                              (b) It is ductile.

(c) It is good conductor.                                                               (d) It is hard.

14 The largest bauxite-producing state in India is ......... .

(a) Orissa                                                                                       (b) Madhya Pradesh

(c) Maharashtra                                                                             (d) Jharkhand

15. The mineral ore from which aluminium is mainly obtained ......... .

(a) copper                                                                                      (b) bauxite

(c) iron ore                                                                                     (d) none of the above

16. The Khetri mines in Rajasthan are famous for which of the following minerals?

(a) Bauxite                                                                                    (b) Aluminium

(c) Mica                                                                                         (d) Copper

17. Name the finest iron ore.

(a) Hematite                                                                                  (b) Magnetite

(c) Manazite                                                                                  (d) Lignite

18. In which state does Nellore mica belt lie?

(a) Tamil Nadu                                                                              (b) Andhra Pradesh

(c) Rajasthan                                                                                 (d) Karnataka

19. Which of the following minerals are obtained from veins and lodes? (CBSE 2011)

     (i) Zinc      (ii) Copper       (iii) Coal          (iv) Bauxite

(a) Only (i) and (ii)                                                                        (b) Only (ii) and (iii)

(c) Only (iii) and (iv)                                                                     (d) All of the above

20. Which of the following is a famous metal?

(a) Manganese                                                                               (b) Bauxite

(c) Gold                                                                                         (d) Mica

Ans. 1—(c) 2—(b) 3—(a) 4—(b) 5—(d) 6—(a) 7—(c) 8—(b) 9—(b) 10—(a) 11—(c) 12—(b) 13—(d) 14—(a) 15—(b) 16—(d) 17—(b) 18—(b) 19—(a) 20—(a)


  1. Which rock consists of single mineral only?
  2. Which state is the largest producer of manganese ores in India? What was its total productions in the state in 2000-01?
  3. How are minerals indispensable part of our lines?
  4. How do geologists define minerals?
  5. Name one hardest mineral and one softest mineral.
  6. Why is copper mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries?
  7. Define the term ‘Ore’.
  8. What is an important condition to make the extraction of minerals commercially viable?
  9. What are veins and lodes?
  10. Name the major metallic minerals which are obtained from veins and lodes.
  11. Where do minerals occur in sedimentary rocks?
  12. Which minerals are largely derived from ocean waters?
  13. How are ferrous minerals important?
  14. Mention the context of iron present in magnetite.
  15. What are placer deposits?
  16. Name any four minerals which obtained form placer deposits.
  17. Where are the Kudermukh mines located?
  18. Where is high grade hematite ore found in Orissa?
  19. What is the main use of manganese?
  20. What are ferrous minerals? Give two examples.
  21. What are non-ferrous minerals? Give two examples.
  22. What are the Khetri mines in Rajasthan famous for?
  23. How is bauxite deposits formed?
  24. How is aluminium an important metal?
  25. Name the regions where India’s bauxite deposits are mainly found.
  26. Name the regions where India’s mica deposits are mainly found.
  27. What are a constant threat to miners?
  28. ‘Different regions of India contain different minerals’. What is the reason behind it?
  29. Name the two countries which import iron ore from India.


1.      What are non-metallic minerals? Write a short note on uses of mica and its distribution in India.

2.      Describe any two facts regarding the importance of manganese in our daily life. Also name the four states which are known for its production.

3.      State two main uses of copper. Also, mention three major copper-producing districts of India.

4.      How is the mining activity injurious to the health of the miners and environment? Explain. (CBSE 2015)


How does mining adversely affect the health and the environment?

5.      State uses of limestone. Also mention the states where it is produced.

6.      The pie chart given below shows the production of manganese in different states. On the basis of reading of diagram answer the following questions:

7.      Mention any three major iron-ore belts of India. Write any three characteristics of the southernmost iron-ore belt.

8.      Differentiate between metallic and non-metallic minerals with examples.

9.      Explain any three values attached with the use of minerals in a sustainable manner. [AI CBSE 2013(C)]

10.  What the different varieties are of iron one? How will you differentiate between them? Give any two points.

11.  How do minerals occur in sedimentary rocks?  (CBSE 2011)

12.  (i) How are deposits of bauxite formed and aluminium obtained?

(ii) What is the utility of aluminium?

(iii) Describe the distribution of aluminium.

13.  How are minerals an indispensable part of our lives? Explain with three examples.

14.  State any two factors affecting the economic viability of mineral reserves. [CBSE 2008(F)]

15.       (i) How are bauxite formed?

           (ii) Where are India’s bauxite deposits found?

          (iii) Which are the most important bauxite deposits located in Orissa?

16.  How do minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks?  (CBSE 2011)

17.  Explain Rat-Hole mining in the tribal areas.  (HOTS)

18.  Mention three properties of mica.(HOTS)


1.      Why is conservation of mineral resources essential? Explain any three methods to conserve them. (CBSE 2015).

2.      What are the two main qualities of iron ore deposits of India? Explain the two types of iron ore mainly found in the country. Which are the major states known for the production of iron ore?

3.      In which various forms do minerals occur? (HOTS)

4.      Give an account of the distribution of minerals in India.


‘Minerals in India are unevenly distributed’. Explain. (CBSE 2011)

5.      Why is Chhotanagpur plateau called a ‘store house of minerals’?

6.      Give an account of the major iron ore belts in India.


1.      On the given political outline map of India, two features A and B are marked. Identify these features with the help of the following information:

A. Iron-ore mines

B. Terminal station of North-South Corridor

On the same map locate and lable the following:

(i) Gandhinagar Software Technology Park. (CBSE 2015)


2.      Identify the following places marked in the given outline political map of India with the help of references:


  1. What are the uses of copper? Describe the three copper-producing regions of India.
  2. Why is mica considered the most important mineral in electric and electronic industries?
  3. What is the necessity of conserving our mineral wealth? What steps should be taken to conserve our mineral wealth?
  4. Write a brief note on mode of ‘occurrence of minerals’.
  5. What do you know about the distribution of copper and bauxite?

Part 2 Energy Resoures Exercise




Choose the correct answer:

1. Which one is not a conventional source of energy?

(a) Coal                                                                                                           (b) Biogas

(c) Firewood                                                                                                   (d) Petroleum

2. Decaying plants in swamps produce what ......... .

(a) Peat                                                                                                            (b) Lignite

(c) Bituminous                                                                                                (d) Coal

3. The principal lignite reserves are used for ......... .

(a) Generation of wind power                                                                        (b) Generation of electricity

(c) Generation of thermal power                                                                     (d) None of the above

4. The major resources of Gondwana coal are located in ......... .

(a) Wardha valley                                                                                            (b) Godavari valley

(c) Sone valley                                                                                                (d) Damodar valley

5. Heavy industries and thermal power stations are located on or near the coalfields because ......... .

(a) coal is a bulky material                                                                              (b) coal loses weight on use

(c) coal transportation is very costly                                                               (d) all of the above

6. The oldest oil-producing state in India is ......... .

(a) Assam                                                                                                        (b) Gujarat

(c) Maharashtra                                                                                               (d) Tamil Nadu

7. The full form of CNG is ......... .

(a) Compound Natural Gas                                                                             (b) Complex Natural Gas

(c) Compound New Gas                                                                                 (d) Compressed Natural Gas

8. There are over ......... thermal power plants in India.

(a) 210                                                                                                             (b) 310

(c) 410                                                                                                             (d) 510

9. The largest solar plant of India is located at ......... .

(a) Madhapur                                                                                                  (b) Nagarcoil

(c) Jaisalmer                                                                                                    (d) Madurai

10. Nagarcoil and Jaisalmer are well known for effective use of ......... in the country.

(a) solar energy                                                                                                (b) wind energy

(c) tidal energy                                                                                                (d) atomic energy

11. The most important oil field in Gujarat is ......... .

(a) Ankaleshwar                                                                                              (b) Vadodara

(c) Kalol                                                                                                          (d) Hajira

12. Neyveli has reserves of ......... .

(a) Anthracite                                                                                                  (b) Poat

(c) Lignite                                                                                                       (d) Bituminous

13. Which one of the following non-conventional sources of energy is harnessed in the Parvati Valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh?

(a) Solar energy                                                                                               (b) Tidal energy

(c) Geothermal energy                                                                                    (d) Wind energy

14. Which one of the following fuels is considered environment-friendly?

(a) Coal                                                                                                           (b) Petroleum

(c) Natural gas                                                                                                 (d) Firewood

15. About sixty per cent of India’s petroleum production comes from the region of ..........

(a) Gujarat